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Reef Ball Research, AR & Fishery Research and Links To Reef Researchers

Note: This page is huge to allow for text searches. (Use Edit/Find in your browser.) You'll be able to find much of the world's scientific knowledge of artificial reefs on this page.

The Reef Ball Development Group encourages all mold users to develop relationships with researchers and to conduct monitoring or other types of studies. It is our goal to assist science to learn as much about artificial reefs and their use as a management tool so that our projects and other artificial reef projects have a better chance of reaching the intended project goals. Although complete papers are too large to post on the Web, most researchers will gladly share their research so an effort is being made to offer e-mail links to major researchers.

Over 50,000 Reef Balls have been deployed worldwide in over 500 projects. All Reef Ball projects require monitoring and most include scientific investigation. Overwhelmingly, the evidence is quite clear that Reef Balls create essential fish, invertebrate and marine plant habitats. In most cases, the evidence indicates that Reef Balls can easily reach the 70% or more of the natural species diversity and population densities of nearby natural reef systems within just a few years, however achieving the ultimate goal of 100% may take five or more years and will nearly always require special treatments to match local conditions. Some major treatments being studied and always in need of local studies include:

-Use of various size mixes of Reef Balls
(i.e. ratio of small to medium to larger sized Reef Balls)

-Spacing and layout of the Reef Balls

-Addition of internal structure to create juvenile preferred habits

-Hole sizing and placement including surface texturing, bottom shape features, etc.

Here are some samples of studies being conducted which relate to how Reef Balls Mimic natural reef habitats: (not in any particular order of importance or size)

  • SPARS Project, Sidney, BC, "Species Diversity on Reef Balls" (Fish and Invertebrates)
  • Roberto De La Torre’s study in Cancun Mexico with Atlantis Submarine, "Fish Species Diversity on Reef Balls"
  • Dr. Robin Sherman’s Report on Juvenile Fish Complexity at NOVA Southeastern University in Ft. Lauderdale
  • Monitoring studies by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Division of Marine Fisheries, Artificial Reef Program (Bill Horn, John Dodril, Tom Maher)
  • Charlotte Harbor Artificial Reef Association studies of Reef Balls as under dock fish habitats
  • Bill Figley of New Jersey’s Artificial Reef Program published results of the fouling community
  • Project Reef Creator did a paper on Coral Reef Restoration with Reef Balls in Oman
  • Brazil’s Instituto Ecoplan paper on Reef Balls
  • Students at Spanish River High School in Boca Raton have documented monitoring of habitat development
  • The Boy Scout’s High Adventure Sea Base in the Florida Keys has an ongoing Reef Ball monitoring program
  • Occidental Petroleum conducted studies on Reef Balls in Qatar and documented success
  • Nearly every Coastal US State artificial Reef Program has on-going artificial reef monitoring and studies on Reef Balls including; Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida (30 of 36 coastal counties have Reef Balls), Alabama, Georgia, Texas, California, Washington, and Puerto Rico
  • The Government of Malaysia did a large study on Reef Balls to be released shortly documenting success of habitat creation and protection of sea turtles
  • Del Valle University in Guatemala will be conducting Reef Ball studies to answer adaptation questions to their waters
  • Ongoing monitoring and study programs are associated with projects in Indonesia, Catalina Island Marine Institute in California, Turks and Caicos, Dominican Republic, Bahamas, Dominica, Australia, and many others.



  • Artificial Reef research in Europe: Perspective and Future
  • Unifying Trends and Opportunities in Global Artificial Reef Research Including Evaluation
  • Forecasting the benefits of no-take artificial reefs using spatial ecosystem simulation
  • Using "natural" reef ecology in artificial reef research: Advancing artificial reef goals through better understanding of ecological processes
  • Distribution of fish assemblages at an artificial reef: diet cycle and area of influence
  • Temporal Dynamics of a Mediterranean artificial reef fish assemblage and comparison with nearby natural reefs
  • Trophic relationships between fishes and an artificial reef
  • Red snapper demographics and energetics on artificial reefs: the effects of nearest-neighbor dynamics
  • Juvenile red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, habitat preferences and site fidelity
  • Productivity on a mature artificial reef: the ichthyoplankton off King Harbor, CA, USA, 1974-97
  • Movement, growth and survival of gray triggerfish, Balisties capriscus inhabiting artificial and natural reefs in the north-central Gulf of Mexico
  • Detection of fish assemblage changes using no metric-multidimensional scaling multivariate analysis: influence of artificial habitats on Posidonia oceanica L. Delile Meadows
  • Colonization pattern of fish populations between a coastal artificial reef and an oceanic artificial reef
  • Artificial reefs as refugia: pre- and post-hurricane visual census evidence
  • An artificial reef program on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • A study of fish and macro crustaceans around the Torness artificial reef in the Firth of Forth (North Sea)
  • Structure and dynamics of macroinvertebrate communities at Canarian artificial reefs (central east Atlantic Ocean)
  • Productivity of a temperate artificial reef based upon the production of 'young of year' embiotocids (Teleostei: Perciformes)
  • Oxygen fluxes of enclosed reef epibiota communities
  • A pilot experiment on artificial habitat on coastal and mid-shelf waters of Parana State - southern Brazil
  • Benthic macrofauna secondary productivity enhancement and mitigation success by an artificial reef in Delaware Bay, USA.
  • Fish colonisation of artificial algae beds in the presence and absence of a seasonal bed of Sargassum furcatum at Cabo Frio Island, Brasil
  • Estimation of food organism production on steel-made artificial reef
  • Spawning of spear squids (Loligo bleekkeri) on breakwaters and the survival of their eggs
  • Comparative growth and mortality of American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, on artificial reefs and natural substrates in the Chesapeake Bay
  • Effect of artificial shelters (Casitas) on the abundance of juvenile spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) in a reef lagoon
  • Quantitative evaluation of algal community on an artificial reef in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)
  • Microspatial Heterogeneity and the persistence of macrophyte vegetation on concrete artificial reef modules
  • Development of coral reef community on artificial reefs in Eilat, Gulf of Aquaba, Red Sea: aggregates of limestone rocks.
  • The Hong Kong artificial reef iniative - 3 papers on the recent developments in Hong Kong
  • Restoration of fisheries through deployment of artificial reefs in marine protected areas
  • Selecting sites for large scale deployment of artificial reefs in Hong Kong: constraint mapping & prioratisation techniques
  • Consultation with local fishers on the Hong Kong artificial reefs iniative
  • Planning, licensing and stakeholder consultation in an artificial reef development: the Loch Linnhe reef, a case study
  • Integrated plan for the construction of an artificial reef in the Thracean Sea, Greece
  • Florida's artificial reef program: a unique partnership between federal, state and local governments
  • The importance of secure tenure for private artificial creation and stewardship
  • Interstate evaluation of a national planning guide for man made fishing reefs
  • A comparison of regulatory processes and issues among five Gulf of Mexico state artificial reef programs: smooth spots and rough spots
  • Demographics, attitudes and reef management preferences of SCUBA divers in offshore Texas waters
  • Regulation of artificial reefs for fishery management: the evolution of the cooperative State/Federal process to designate artificial reefs as special management zones, essential fish habitat, habitat areas of particular concern and artificial refugia in the southeastern United States Exclusive Economic Zone
  • Artificial reefs in Turkey
  • The history and future of artificial reefs and related aquatic habitats in Japan
  • Study of mixed materials to increase the stability of a rubble mound habitat
  • Artificial reef design: void space, complexity and attractants
  • The effect of artificial reef design on faunal richness
  • Design considerations for an artificial reef to grow giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, in southern California
  • The studies on artificial reef design for Octopus vulgaris(Cuvier,1797) in Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea, Turkey): Field and tank observations
  • ARCON®: An innovative technology for planning, conceptual design and installation of artificial reefs in the sublittoral marine environment. Experiences from the Baltic Sea and tropical marine lagoons.
  • Effects of reef design complexification on associated fish assemblages. Example of large artificial reefs units (158 m3) used in France
  • Functions of artificial reefs and the creation of the shell nursery
  • The use of coal flyash in marine concrete for artificial reefs in the southeastern Mediterranean
  • A long term monitoring of the benthic community change in a steel slag casting site in the coastal waters of Taiwan
  • A summary of the fish assemblages around seven oil and gas production platforms and around oil drilling debris off central and southern California.
  • Spatial and temporal patterns of shallow water fish assemblages among nine oil and gas production platforms and nine natural reefs in the Santa Barbara Channel region, USA
  • Are southern California oil and gas platforms essential fish habitat?
  • The status of the California rigs to reefs program and the need to limit consumptive fishing activities
  • Oil activity and artificial reefs programs in Campeche, Mexico
  • An analysis of the North Sea 'rigs to reefs' debate centering on the United Kingdom continental shelf
  • Rigs to reefs in the North Sea: Hydroacoustic quantification of fish in the vicinity of a 'semicold' platform
  • Residence of fish in the vicinity of a decommissioned oil platform in the North Sea
  • Spatio-temporal variations in gillnet catch rates in the vicinity of oil platforms
  • Evolution of the fish assemblage around a gas platform in the northern Adriatic Sea
  • Communities and assemblages associated with an underwater pipeline as an artificial reef
  • The wild fisheries enhancement potential of fishfarms and artificial reefs: a case study in Madeira Island, NE Atlantic
  • The potential of artificial reefs to reduce organic enrichment caused by commercial net cage fish farming in the Gulf of Aqaba (Eilat)
  • The present state and problems on the improvement and development of coastal fishing ground in Japan
  • Marine ranching in combination with artificial reefs: a legal perspective
  • Artificial reefs' versus 'underwater structures to enhance ecology and fisheries': an attempt to clarification and future ways of research
  • Evaluation of two submersible platforms for abalone cultivation and artificial reef
  • Development of large-scale, high-rise reef and it's effect
  • A Study of Settlement Location of Fishery Grounds with Artificial Fish Reefs by Internal Waves
  • Fish community associated with FADs in southern Thyrrhenian Sea and in northern Ionian Sea
  • Simulation model of fish behavior around artificial fish aggregation devices (FAD)
  • Data gathering or data analysis? The use of monitoring information to document performance of artificial reefs
  • The reefkeepers' guide: a defensible science tool with a case study for monitoring reef biota by non-professional divers in Canada's Pacific waters
  • Field observation of velocity and temperature fluctuations around a reef
  • Assessment of the effectiveness of an artificial reef as out-of-kind mitigation for loss of shallow water habitat in the Delaware Bay (USA)
  • An experimental evaluation of different reef designs used to compensate for losses to a giant kelp forest community
  • Assessment of El Nino events on natural kelp beds and artificial reefs in southern California 
  • Engineering perspectives of benthic artificial reefs off the southwestern coast of Taiwan
  • Formation of Environment for Artificial Habitat Ecosystem: Sandy Beach Ecosystem
  • Investigating terrain change around artificial reefs by using multibeam echosounder
  • Effects of an artificial reef on the surrounding seabed community (central Adriatic sea)
  • Effects of human-induced disturbances on oysters and reef dwelling species: implications for reef restoration
  • Evaluation of the efficiency of an antigrazing net placed on an artificial reef at Loano (Savona, Ligurian Sea): algal biomass
  • Methods for enhancing habitat value of artificial structures by establishing surfgrass (Phyllospadix torreyi)
  • A quantitative framework to evaluate the attraction-production controversy, with application to marine ornamental fisheries.
  • Engineering Design of Artificial Reefs
  • Comparative study of the marine biota before and after the deployment of an artificial reef in Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, Spain)
  • Spatial characterization of seagrass (Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile) meadows in Mediterranean artificial reefs (Murcia, SE of Spain).
  • Evaluation of fish community during ten years at Loano artificial reef
  • Artificial reef systems: a tool for the Algarve coast fisheries management plan
  • Reef fish assemblage structure affected by small-scale spatial variations of artificial patch reefs: preliminary results
  • A new project on artificial reefs in Madeira Island
  • Shipwrecks as artificial reefs in the coast of Murcia (SE Spain)
  • Influence of artificial reefs on the surrounding infauna: analysis of meiofauna
  • Phytobenthic colonisation on panels with different slope in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)
  • Algal flora on artificial reefs at Loano (Savona, Ligurian Sea)
  • Artificial habitats for fishery restocking in oligotrophic waters (Ponza Island, central Tyrrhenian Sea) 
  • Analysis of the benthic community in two areas protected by stone reef barriers
  • Fish assemblages and environmental variables on an artificial reef - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Effects of substrata on the artificial reef fish assemblage in Santa Eulalia bay (Ibiza Island, western Mediterranean)
  • New methods for using artificial reefs for habitat protection, mitigation and restoration
  • Artificial reefs in the Canarian autonomous community: a decade of development
  • Enhancement of Posidonia oceanica bed recovery and reimplantation by artificial reefs
  • Evaluating artificial reef performance: approaches to pre-deployment research
  • Small- scale systematic echosurveys for estimating fish density in three artificial reef areas off Lanzarote and Gran canaria (Canary Islands)
  • An ecological comparison between two artificial reef systems (south of Portugal): chemical evolution on water column and sediment
  • Assessing the effectiveness of the experimental artificial reef of Tabarca (Alicante, Spain, SW Mediterranean): comparison of the artificial structures with a natural rocky and seagrass bottoms.
  • Influence of the Alcamo Marina artificial reef (N/W Sicily, Italy) on the adjacent soft bottom area
  • Are artificial reefs related to adjacent natural rocky areas? A Mollusc case study in the Gulf of Castellammare (NW Sicily)
  • Abundance and interactions of moray eels (Gymnothorax moringa and G. vicinus) and spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) in artificial shelters
  • Fish assemblage associated with an alveolar artificial reef in the marine reserve of Tabarca: temporal dynamics and successional trends
  • Ecological effect of artificial reef in Pomeranian Bay (Baltic Sea).
  • Importance of artificial habitats in the attraction of commercial species in deep waters
  • Water quality management with the help of artificial reefs
  • The artificial reef debate: are we asking the wrong questions?
  • Application of marine ecosystem modeling to artificial reef deployment studies ECOSPACE: a demonstration
  • British Columbia's artificial reef program: a study in alternative approaches to artificial reef development and management
  • The feasibility of Deploying PFA-concrete Artificial Reef for Coral Reef Restoration: a Hong Kong case study

European Artificial Reef Research, Proceeding of the 1st EARRN Conference, Ancona, Italy, March 1996 edited by A.C. Jensen

  • Protection of biological habitats by artificial reefs
  • Physical protection of the seabed and coasts by artificial reefs
  • Biodiversity of European Artificial Reefs
  • Biomass on artificial reefs
  • Some prospects of nutrient removal with artificial reefs
  • Finfish attraction and fisheries enhancement on artificial reef
  • The use of artificial reefs in crustacean fisheries enhancement
  • Molluscan aquaculture on reefs
  • Algoculture and artificial reefs
  • Artificial Reefs in Spain: The regulatory framework
  • Cost benefit analysis of artificial reefs
  • legal framework governing artificial reefs in EU
  • Socio-economic aspects of artificial reefs in Japan
  • Frontiers that increase unity:defining an agenda for European Artificial Reef Research
  • Monitoring epifaunal colonisation
  • Tagging, tracking and telemetry in artificial reef research
  • Assessment of biomass and production of artificial reef communities
  • Assessment of habitat selection behaviour in macroorganisums on artificial reefs
  • Underwater photographic techniques for field research in shallow marine environments
  • Monitoring techniques for zoobenthic communities influence of the artificial reef on th surrounding infaunal community.
  • Does the level of design influence success of an artificial reef?
  • Site selection and environmental criteria-a case study
  • Quantifying complexity in rock reeds

Book of Abstracts, 52nd Gulf and Carribean Fisheries Institute, Key West Florida USA Nov 5, 1999.

Japanese Artificial Reef Technology, Translations of Selected Japanese Literature and An Evaluation of Potential Applications in the U.S. July 1982, Aquabio, Inc. Technical Report 604

  • Fisheries Promotion and the Project to Maintain and Develop Coastal Fishing Grounds, by Takashi Tanigawa
  • Materials Traditionally Used in Artificial Reef Design and Construction by the National Government, Prefectural Governments, and Fishing Industry, by The Fishery Civil Engineering Study Association
  • The Present Status and Future Prospects of Artificial Reefs: Developmental Trends of Artificial Reef Units, by Yoshinori Ogawa
  • Kinko Gyosho, Tsukiiso, and Marine Organisms, by Yoshinori Ogawa
  • The Planning and Design of Artificial Reefs and Tsukiiso, by Makoto Nakamura
  • A Sample Calculation for the Design of a Cube-Type Artificial Reef (Regular and Large), by Masao Kamikit
  • Construction, Site Engineering, and Problem Areas of Artificial Reefs, by Kahei Shomomura
  • Introduction: Report from the Consolidated Reef Study Society, by Yasuo Ohshima
  • Basic Theory; Yoshinori Ogawa, Chairperson
  • Discussion of Installation Planning; Nagao Yoshimuda, Chairperson
  • Structures of Materials, and Designing/Installation; Makoto Nakamura, Chairperson
  • Artificial Reefs and Fish Attraction
  • Habitat Selection Activities
  • Fish-Gathering Mechanisms of Reefs
  • Reefs and Food Organisms
  • Current and Sound
  • Effective Boundaries of Reefs
  • Reef Configurations
  • The Effect of Artificial Reefs on Propagation

Florida Artificial Reef Development Plan, Sept. 1992

Environmental and Fishery Performance of Florida Artificial Reef Habitats, Sept. 1992

Artificial Reef Evaluation Capabilities of Florida Counties, April 1993

A Study To Determine the Feasibility of Building Artificial Reefs In Maryland's Chesapeake Bay, Jan. 1990

The effects of post settlement predation and resource limitation on reef fish assemblages, Dec. 1996

Project Reef Creator, Coral Reef Restoration with Reef Balls, July 1999

International Conference on Scientific Aspects of Coral Reef Assessment, Monitoring, and Restoration, Ft. Lauderdale, April 16, 1999. Abstracts

  • Launching SIMAC: The National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia

  • Benthic Substrate Characterization and Discrimination of Kane’ohe Bay, O’ahu, Hawai’i

  • Restoration of a Deep-Water Population of the Habitat-Structuring Coral Oculina varicosa in the Oculina Research Reserve off Ft. Pierce, FL, USA

  • EPA Coral/Hardbottom Monitoring Project, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

  • Coral Reef Habitat Mapping: Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Optical Spectra Data

  • Transplantation of Reef-Building Corals on the Rosario Archipelago, Colombian Caribbean

  • Scleractinia Coral Dynamics at Three Reefs in Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA, 1989–1997

  • Detection of Damaged Tropical Coral from Spot Satellite Imagery and In Situ Observations

  • The "Johnny Coral Seed" Approach to Coral Reef Restoration: New Methodologies Appropriate for Lower Energy Reef Areas

  • Value-Added Data from the EPA Coral Reef/Hardbottom Monitoring Project Video: Sponge Distribution in the Florida Keys

  • The Use of a CASI as a Near-Real Time Coral Reef Monitoring System

  • An Economical Method to Enhance Sexual Recruitment for Restoration of Damaged Reef?

  • Long Term Monitoring and Assessment of the Flower Garden Banks Coral Ecosystem

  • A Database of 334 Reflectance Spectra Enables Identification of Broad Categories of Coral Reef Features

  • Assessment of Vessel Grounding Injury to Coral Reef and Seagrass Habitats in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Florida: Protocol and Methods

  • Permanent Reef Community Monitoring Sites Offshore of Broward County, Florida: Preliminary Comparative Results

  • Ocean Hotspots and Unprecedented Coral Reef Bleaching during 1999

  • Reef Damage by Large Vessel Impact and Its Mitigation by Site Cleanup: Methods and Results after One

  • Using Reef Check to Monitor Coral Reefs

  • Experimental Assessment of Factors Affecting the Settlement and Survival of Reseeded Coral Spat in the Field

  • Reef Restoration: Science or Technology

  • Reef Monitoring for Management in St. Lucia, West Indies

  • The Use of a Novel Chemo-Inductive Substrate to Determine Species-Specific Factors that Influence Successful Sexual Recruitment of Corals

  • The Socio-Economic Costs and Benefits of Coral Reef Restoration

  • Monitoring Changes in Ecosystem Structure and Function in No-Take Zones in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

  • Adventures in Aquaculture at "Terra Sub Aqua"

  • Wetlands Mitigation in Florida: Improvements in Science and Applications

  • Monitoring of Ecological and Socioeconomic Indicators for Coral Reef Management in Colombia

  • Can Selfing Coral Species be Used to Enhance Restoration of Damaged Reefs?

  • Ship Groundings in the Florida Keys: Implications for Reef Ecology and Management

  • The Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network Aims to Gather both Data and Raise Awareness

  • Using Cultured Coral to Rehabilitate a Degraded Reef in the Central Philippines

  • Recovery of Fish Assemblages from Ship Groundings on Coral Reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

  • The Assessment "Toolbox": Community-Based Reef Evaluation Methods Coupled with Geochemical Techniques to Identify Sources of Stress

  • The Importance of Algal-Grazer Interactions in Early Growth and Survivorship of Sexual Recruits and Transplanted Juvenile Coral

  • Patterns in Reef Structure, Coral and Fish Communities, and Their Degradation in the Red Sea: Implications for Management and Restoration

  • Detecting Impacts on Reef Fish in Kona: A Model for Community and Interagency Collaboration

  • Coral Recruitment Processes in the Upper Florida Keys: How Much Variation in Time and Space

  • The Culture, Transplantation, and Storage of Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis, and A. palmata: What We Learned So Far

  • Scientific Implication of Monitoring Coral Reefs for Sustainable Livelihood Development in Poor Countries; Experiences from South Asia

  • Case Studies of Natural Variability in Coral Recruitment from the Caribbean and the Pacific. Which Reefs need Restoration Assistance?

  • Improving Decision Making in Coral Reef Restoration

  • Scales, Hypotheses, and the Limits of Detection in the Ecology and Management of Coral Reefs

  • Science Needs for Effective Management of Reef Fishes
  • Introduction, including elements of:

  • An Historical Review of Coral Reef Restoration in Florida
  • Local Variability versus Landscape Stability following Major Hurricane Impacts in a Protected Coral Reef Reserve

  • Connectivity and Replenishment of Reef Fish Populations

  • Ten Years after the Crime: Lasting Effects of Damage from a Cruise Ship Anchor on a Coral Reef in St. John, USVI

  • Variability of Coral Assemblages on Multiple Scales: Implications for Reef Management

  • Design-Based Sampling that Optimizes Multispecies Reef Fish Assessments

  • Emergency Stabilization of Acropora palmata with Stainless Steel Wire and Nails: Impressions, Lessons Learned, and Recommendations from Mona Island, Puerto Rico

  • Effects of a Hurricane on Coral Reef Fishes: Importance of Long-Term Monitoring and Data Analyses

  • Interactions of Hawaiian Reef Fish Assemblages with the Benthic Habitat of Reefs

  • Reef Restoration and Monitoring: Soto’s Reef, George Town, Grand Cayman Island, British West Indies

  • Spatio-Temporal Variation in the Distribution of Juvenile Scleractinians along the South Coast of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

  • Newly-Settled Snappers and Grunts of Southeast Florida: Comparative Growth and Cross-Shelf Distributions

  • Coral Reef Emergency Response Teams: A S.W.A.T. Team Approach towards Dealing with Short-Term Anthropogenic Event

  • Can Multivariate Analysis Discriminate Community Influences within the Belize Barrier Reef Complex

  • Rethinking Visual Monitoring Methods for Reef Fishes: Is there an Excessive Preoccupation with Precision, Accuracy, and Numbers?

  • Using GIS to Conduct Injury Assessment, Restoration and Monitoring During the Contship Houston Grounding

  • Detection of Coral Bleaching and Hurricane Damage on Coral Reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands: A Comparison of Results from the Chain Transect Method and Videography

  • Asking the Right Questions about Assessment and Monitoring of Coral Reefs

  • Use of Artificial Reefs in Shallow Depths to Protect Natural Reefs and Shorelines

  • Rapid Assessment Methods for Monitoring Marine Protected Areas in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: Program Design and Affects of Hurricane Georges of Reefs in the Middle and Lower Key

  • Applications of the Reef Fish Survey Project for Monitoring Fishes in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

  • Varying Responses of Herbivorous and Invertebrate-Feeding Fishes to Macroalgal Reduction: A Restoration Experiment

  • Assessing Coral Reefs Based on Long-Term Ecological Records

  • Chemical Signatures in Otoliths: Natural Tags of Structure and Connectivity of Reef Fish Populations

  • Enhancement of Reef Regeneration Processes: Supplementing Coral Recruitment Processes through Larval Seeding

  • Marine Biodiversity and the Need for Systematic Inventory

  • Community-Based Efforts for Protecting Palau’s Coral Reef Resources

  • An Assessment of Juvenile Coral Populations at Two Coral Reef Restoration Sites in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: Indicators of Success?

  • Cost-Effective Assessment of Biodiversity on Coral Reef

  • Is Management of Reefs a Rational Approach?

  • An Analysis of the Efficacy of Artificial Reef Structures for Coral Reef Restoration: A Case Study in the Maldives

  • Coral Reef Nonindigenous Species, with Emphasis on the Value of Taxonomy in Species Determinations

  • Coral Reef and Coastal Resource Use in Micronesia

  • Coral Reef Restoration: Potential Uses of Artificial Reefs

  • Coral Reef Bioindicators: Where Are We and Where Do We Go From Here?

  • The U. S. Coral Reef Initiative: A Partnership in Transition

  • Site Dependent Differences in Artificial Reef Function: Implications for Coral Reef Restoration

  • Cyanobacterial Chemical Ecology: Assessing the Secondary Metabolism of Cyanobacterial Chemotypes as a Measure of Bloom Biodiversity

  • Successful Management Requires Flexibility, Which has been a Cornerstone of Traditional rather than Western Style Management Practices

  • Reef Habitat Patchiness, Habitat Selection, and the Functional Interplay between Food and Shelter for Reef Fish

  • Are Benthic Cyanobacteria Indicators of Nutrient Enrichment?

  • Economic, Political, and Cultural Realities in the Scientific Management of Reef Resources in the Pacific Islands

  • Artificial Reefs may not Enhance Larval Recruitment and Juvenile Abundance

  • Foraminifera as Indicators of Coral-Reef Vitality

  • Who Protects the Reefs?

  • Artificial Substrate and Coral Reef Restoration: What Do We Need to Know to Know What We Need

  • Diversity of Zooxanthellae at the Margins of Coral Distributions

  • Goodson, M.S.; Douglas, A.E.; Brown, B.E.
  • Coral Cultivation and Its Application to Reef Restoration, Environmental Assessment, Monitoring, and the Aquarium Trade

  • Symbiotic Zooxanthellae as Indicators of Nutrient Exposure in Reef Corals

  • Patterns of Distribution and Spread of Coral Disease in the Florida Keys

  • Science into Policy: Designing Coral Reef Management and Restoration from the Benthos Up

  • Underwater Video Analyses of Spatio-Temporal Changes in Coral Community Structure: Detecting Cover Changes vs. Substrate Heterogeneity Information

  • Monitoring the 1995/1996 and 1998/1999 Bleaching Events on Patch Reefs around San Salvador Island, Bahamas

  • The Limits of Acceptable Change Process as a Framework for Monitoring Recreational Impacts to a Coral Reef

  • A Comparison of Growth Rate of Two Color Morphotypes of the Scleractinian Coral Porites astreoides

  • Coral Reef Diseases and Bleaching; Applications for Monitoring and Sample Collection

  • Can Differential Bleaching and Mortality Among Coral Species Offer Useful Indicators for Assessment and Management of Reefs Under Stress?

  • Trophic Patterns as an Ecological Tool for Assessing Coral Reef Ecosystems

  • A Data-Driven Expert System for Producing Coral Bleaching Alerts

  • Methods for Estimating the Economic Value of Coral Reef Restoration

  • Application of the Atlantic and Gulf Reef Assessment (AGRA) Protocols along Mexico's Caribbean Coast 1997-1999: Pre and Post Bleaching Impacts

  • Impact of Plague Type II Disease on Populations of Dichocoenia stokesii in Southeast Florida

  • Development of a Systematic Classification Scheme of Marine Habitats to Facilitate Regional Management of Caribbean Coral Reefs

  • Use of Skeletal Growth Rates for the Monitoring of the Anthropogenic Impact on Reefs in the Florida Keys

  • Temporal Shifts in Community Structure on Little Africa Patch Reef, Dry Tortugas: Influence of Acropora Mass Mortality

  • A Marine "Gap-Analysis" Framework for the Assessment and Monitoring of U.S. Coral Reefs

  • Rapid, Large-Scale Reef Surveys for Monitoring and Management: Lessons from the Indian Ocean and the Bahamas

  • An Upwelling Event in the Dry Tortugas during May 1998

  • Assessing Coral Stress Responses at the Level of Gene Expression

  • Methods for Marine Bioassessment: Florida DEP Draft Methods for Assessing the Health of Coral Communities

  • The Destructive Side of Rhydopyhta, Corallinaceae: Pneophyllum conicum Killing Reef-Corals in Mauritius

  • Fluorescence Technologies for Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring

  • Determining Coral Reef Health from Benthic Cover: Variables, Norms, Bounds, and Sampling

  • Assessing the Effects of Sewage on Coral Reefs: Developing Techniques with Predictive Value

  • The Use of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in the Physiological Assessment of Reef Corals

  • Rapid Assessment of Corals, Algae, and Fish on Reefs of the Western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico (AGRRA)

  • Re-Evaluating Lipid as an Indicator of Sediment and Thermal Stress in Montastrea annularis and M. faveolata: Detecting Sublethal Effects on Short Time Scales

  • Monitoring and Assessing Coral Reef Sponges: Why and How

  • Use of the AGRA-RAP Protocol for Coral Reef Assessment: San Salvador Island, Bahamas and South-Central Belize

  • Assessing Water Quality of Coral Reefs with Marine Plant Nutrient Bioindicators: Examples from Australia Coastal Ecosystems

  • 3-D Morphometric Modelling of Corals

  • How Much Change Can a Coral Reef Monitoring Program Detect Reliably? Examples from the Great Barrier Reef

  • Monitoring the Physiology of Reef Corals: Tissue Biomass and Zooxanthellae

  • The Line-Intercept Transect in Reef Monitoring: Improvement And Limits

  • Rapid Assessment at the Flower Gardens: Remarkable Reefs Flourishing in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico

  • Assessing Potential Water Quality Impacts Using Coral Vitality Measurements in Nearshore Bahamian Patch Reefs

  • Caribbean Coral Reef Community Characterization and Monitoring Using the Transect-Quadrat Method

  • The Marine Rapid Assessment Program (Marine RAP): Identifying Conservation "Hotspots" in the Central Indo-Pacific

  • Juvenile Corals: The Detection of Population Response to Stress

  • Ex situ Cultivation of Reef-Building Corals: Biological, Biomedical, Ecological, Educational, and Recreational Applications

  • Natural and Anthropogenic Disturbances on Intertidal Reefs of S.E. Phuket Thailand

Non-Paper Presentations

  • First Coral Reef Assessment in the Southern Hemisphere Applying the AGRA Rapid Protocol (Caramuanas Reef, Bahia, Brazil)

  • Determining Spatial Patterns in Reef Condition: Application of AGRA-RAP to the Andros Island Reef System, Bahamas

  • Count Things or Measure Fluxes: Do Metrics of Emergent Properties Portray Coral Reef Ecosystem Health?

  • A Novel Approach for Assessing Contaminant Impacts in the Vicinity of Coral Reefs

  • CARICOMP Coral Reef Monitoring: A Comparison of Continuous Intercept Chain and Video Techniques

  • The Need for Fast, Easy, and Accurate Methods for Coral Cover Assessment: A Case Study in Abrolhos, Brazil

  • Assessment and Monitoring Applications for a Community-Based Monitoring Program

  • The Caribbean Marine Research Center: Assessment and Monitoring of Reef Health in the Bahamas and Caribbean Region

  • Evaluation of Benthic Sampling Methods Considered for the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) in Hawaii

  • The Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP)

  • The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP) Program

  • Video Identification of Benthic Organisms: How Accurate Is It?

  • Assessment of Coral Loss Post-Hurricane Georges at Selected Florida Keys Reefs

  • Assessment and Monitoring of the Coral Reef Ecosystem of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Consequences of Marine Debris

  • The Characterization of Coral Reefs and Reef Associated Sediments to Assess the Impact of Anthropogenic Pollution: West Coast Barbados, W.I.

  • Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts to Benthic Habitats in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: Managing a Vessel Grounding Database

  • Moving Vessels and Stationary Resources: Observations on Causation and Minimization of Consequences of Time/Space Conflict

  • Positive and Negative Impacts of the Marine Aquarium Trade on Coral Reefs

  • Water Quality in the Great Barrier Reef: What Do We Know, Where Are We Going and Is Anybody Listening?

  • A Set of Benthic Bio-Indicators Currently Used for Assessing the Ecological Status in Cuban Coral Reefs

  • The Line-Intercept Transect: Usage and Improvement

  • Utilization of Line Intercept Transit (LIT) in the Monitoring of Corals of the Atol das Rocas

  • Quality Assurance Measures Associated with Coral Reef Monitoring

  • Appraisal of Global Rapid Monitoring Approaches on Two Western Indian Ocean Reefs

  • An International Cooperative Effort to Provide Monitoring for the Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico

  • SEAKEYS Monitors Severe Conditions in 1998

  • The Sea Stewards Program: Monitoring Protected Zones of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

  • Participatory Fisheries Monitoring and Assessment by Artisanal Fishers in Diani, Kenya

  • Monitoring Fish Recruitment on a Fringing Reef in Virgin Islands National Park, St. John, US Virgin Islands

  • Monitoring the Effects of Land Development on Coral Abundance and Coral Health

  • Does Coral Monitoring Increase Awareness and Improve Science Education?

  • Techniques to Monitor and Assess Possible Reef Impacts Due to Dredging Activities Associated with Beach Renourishment

  • Coral Reef Monitoring Plan for Hawaii

  • Monitoring Reef Fish Stocks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

  • Commercial Applications of Coral Reef Restoration

  • Coral Restoration and Water Quality Monitoring with Cultured Larvae of Montastrea "annularis" and Acropora palmata

  • Enhancing Coral Reef Recovery after Destructive Fishing Practices in Indonesia

  • Miami-Dade County’s Sunny Isles Reef Restoration: Habitat Restoration on Intermittently Impacted Hardground Reef

  • Emergency Coral Reef Restoration at Mona Island, Puerto Rico

  • A Restoration of Damaged Coastal Zone and Reef Flat in Bora Bora Island (Society, French Polynesia)

  • Sea Urchin Reduction as a Restoration Technique in a New Marine Park

  • Sediment Production is Critical to Reef Restoration

  • New Technique for Hard Coral Reattachment Field-Tested Following Two Recent Ship Groundings

  • Grounding of the Nuclear Submarine, USS Memphis, on a Southeast Florida Coral Reef: Impact Assessment and Proposed Restoration

  • Innovative Tools for Reef Restoration: The Contship Houston Grounding

  • Recovery and Growth of the Giant Barrel Sponge (Xestospongia muta) Following Physical Injury from a Vessel Grounding in the Florida Keys

  • Assessing and Restoring the Impacts of Ship-Groundings on Coral Reefs

  • Questions Regarding the Biological Significance of Vessel Groundings and Appropriateness of Restoration Effort

  • Advances in Captive Husbandry and Propagation: An Easily Utilized Reef Replenishment Means from the Private Sector?

  • Coral Spawning Slicks Harnessed for Large-Scale Coral Culture

  • Enhanced Formation of Protoreefs by Accretion Technology and Coral Transplantation-Stepping Stones in Degraded Reefs

  • Transformation of Artificial Concrete "Reef Ball" Structure into Living Coral Heads through the Use of Implants of Juveniles Massive Corals

  • Coral Transplantation Following Repair of Outfall

  • Restoration of a Valuable Coral Reef Ecosystem: Reeffix Montego Bay, Jamaica

  • Large-Scale Restoration of Eastern Pacific Reefs: The Need for Understanding Regional Biological Processes

  • Fishes Trophic Groups Assessment at Northern Mexican Caribbean Coral Reefs

  • A Data-Driven Expert System for Producing Coral Bleaching Alerts for Myrmidon Reef, Great Barrier Reef

  • Monitoring of the Bleaching of Corals in the Brazilian Coast

  • Monitoring of the Bleaching in Corals of the Atol das Rocas, Brazil

  • The Extent of 1998 Coral Bleaching Catastrophe in the Marginal Seas of the Indo-Pacific

  • Coral Bleaching in Philippine Reefs: Coincident Evidences with Mesoscale Thermal Anomalies

  • El-Niño Related Coral Bleaching in Eastern Africa, March to May 1998

  • Coral Bleaching Event along the Belize Barrier Reef

  • Rapid Assessment of Coral Reef Condition and Short-Term Changes to Corals Affected by Disease in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

  • Seasonal Variation of the Dark Spots Disease in the Colombian Caribbean

  • Photosynthetic, Anoxygenic Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in Black-Band Disease on Boulder Coral, Andros Island, The Bahamas

  • The Distribution and Frequency of Coral Diseases in the Florida Keys and the Dry Tortugas

  • Fungal Pathogenesis of the Sea Fan Gorgonia ventalina: Direct and Indirect Consequences

  • A New Disease Infecting Palythoa caribaeorum (Cnidaria, Zoanthidea): Dynamics in Space and Time

  • Fisheries Zoning and Marine Protected Areas Management: Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic

  • Sediment Re-Suspension and Its Effects on Fore Reef Slope Communities in the Southeastern Dominican Republic

  • Continental Influence and Spatial Patterns in Community Structure of the Florida Reef Tract

  • Cross-Shelf Patterns of Juvenile Coral Density and Distribution in the Florida Keys

  • Comparison of Herbivorous Fish Assemblages on Patch Reefs in the Exuma Cays Landing and Sea Park and Nassau, Bahamas

  • Community Structure and Diversity of Fringing Reefs at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba

  • Grouper Populations in Fished and Protected Areas of the Florida Keys, Bahamas, and Northern Caribbean

  • Reef and Hard-Bottom Habitat Distribution in the Central Bahamas: Implications for Marine Reserve Design

  • Effects of a No-Take Marine Reserve on Grouper Populations in the Central Bahamas

  • Measuring the Success of No-Take Marine Reserves: Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park, Bahamas

  • Relationships between Coral Condition and Damselfish Density and Predation on Bahamian Patch Reefs

  • Potential for Restoration of Coral Reef Ecosystems in South Florida by Control of Coastal Eutrophication

  • A Decision Analysis Approach to Managing Effects of Eutrophication on Coral Reefs in Barbados

  • Relative Influence of Terrigenous vs. Reef Carbonate Silt on Turbidity and Coral Distribution at Bocas del Toro, Panama

  • Detection of Microsatellite Loci in a Fungiid Coral, Heliofungia actiniformis

  • Estimating Molecular Biodiversity through Gene Flow Analysis of Coral from the Florida Keys

  • Identification of an 18S Pseudogene in a Symbiotic Species of Symbiodinium

  • Genetic Approaches to Rapid Species Identification of Reef Fishes

  • Coral Reef Mapping in Diani, Kenya-Whose Reefs are They Anyway?

  • Integrated Video Mapping System (IVMS): A Tool for Coral Reef Injury Assessment

  • Substrate-Community Mapping of the Bermuda Platform Using Color Aerial Photographs, GIS, and Adobe Photoshop

  • Use of Remote Sensing and GIS for Mapping and Assessing Bermuda's Benthic Resources

  • The Use of the NOAA/NESDIS Interactive Coral Reef "Hot Spot" Web Page to Monitor Coral Bleaching during the 1997/98 El Niño and the 1998/99 La Niña Events

  • Airborne Multispectral Imagery and Field Surveys of the Impact of the 1998 ENSO on Coral Communities in French Polynesia

  • Monitoring and Assessment of Selected Coral Reefs in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands Using Aircraft Remote Sensing

  • Development of Toxicity Testing Methods Using Tropical Marine Species

  • Wave Set-Up on Coral Reefs: Design of a Numerical Model

  • Long-Term Natural Changes on Coral Reefs at the Flower Gardens (Northwest Gulf of Mexico)

  • Changes in Reef Community Structure on Lime Cay, Jamaica, 1989-1999: The Story Before Protection

  • Coral Communities of La Paguera, Puerto Rico: Current Condition and Thirty Years of Change

  • Short Time Scale (1989-1997) Changes of the Coral Coverages along Fringing Reef Outer Fronts in the Mayotte Lagoon (SW Indian Ocean) Associated with Island Development

  • Image Analysis of Changes in Percent Cover at Stetson Bank, Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS)

  • Environmental Impacts on Coral Growth Rates in Three Heavily Disturbed Reefs

  • Impact of Tourism on Coral Reef and Suggested Management Plans

  • Cnidarian Community Structure of Coastal Reefs from Northern Bahia, Brazil

  • Reefs of the Coast of Pernambuco-Brazil

  • Environmental Characteristics of Chinchorro Bank Reef Lagoon and Their Relationship with Hermatypic Coral Fauna

  • Competition for Space between Corals and Microalgae in Florida : from Conceptual to Simulation Models

  • Fish-Coral Associations in Shallow Reefs Around Puerto Rico

  • Changes in the Fish Community after the Mass Mortality of Corals During the 1998 El Niño Event

  • Relationships between Benthic Community Parameters and the Ichthyological Community in Southeast Asian Reefs: Implication for Management

  • Distribution and Abundance of the Bluechin Parrotfish (Scarus ghobban) in a Tropical Eastern Pacific Coral Reef

  • Development of a Knowledge Base for the Corals of the Mascarene Archipelago and Applications to Coral Reef Management

  • Biogeo-Areographic Approach of the Coralline Fauna and Flora in the Reefs Off Southeastern Mexico

  • Sponges: An Essential Component of Caribbean Coral Reefs

  • Coralliophilla abbreviata (Gastropoda: Coralliphilidae) Populations in the Florida National Marine Sanctuary and Preliminary Data on the Feeding Ecology

  • There’s No Such Thing as Dead Coral: "Cryptic" Algal Diversity and Abundance in Coral Reef Communities

  • Compositional Changes in Reef Sediments Related to Changes in Coral Reef Community Structure

  • Interactions between Small Scleractinian Corals and Algal Turf: Consequences for Coral Physiology

  • Changes in Optical Spectra and Pigmentation of the Coral Montastrea faveolata in Response to Elevated Temperature and Ultraviolet-B Radiation

  • Skeletal Architecture and Density Band Analysis Techniques for Diploria strigosa

  • Reef Coral Reproduction in the Abrolhos Reef Complex, Brazil: The Endemic Genus Mussismilia

  • Tissue Regeneration of the Reef-Building Coral Montastrea annularis, in Two Coralline Patches at Dos Mosquises Key, Los Roques National Park, Venezuela

  • Response of a Reef Dwelling Foraminfer, Amphistegina gibbosa, to Ultraviolet Radiation-Possible Implications for Host-Symbiont Interactions

  • Effect on Artificial Substratum Material and Resident Adults on Coral Larval Settlement Behavior at Danjugan Island, Philippines

  • A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Two-Stroke Engine Exhaust and Coolant Effluent on the Skeletal Growth of the Scleractinian, Madracis mirabilis

  • A New Imaging Sensor for Investigating Fluorescent Coralline Pigments

  • Brazilian Reefs: What We Already Know and What Is Still Missing

  • Long Term Monitoring Programme for Suva Reef, Fiji

  • The Community Coral Reef Initiative: Coral Reef Restoration in Rural Pacific Island Settings

  • Is Coral Reef Decline Just a Blip in the Geologic Record?;

  • Mapping U.S. Coral Reefs: New Partnerships and Technologies

  • Mona Island Coral Reef Restoration

  • Quantitative Measures of Coral Bleaching

The Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program: Fisheries Research and Development Report, 1996

RAM Program of Artificial Reefs in Parana, Brazil, Ecoplan, August, 1999

Here's more links and information, some less Reef Ball specific. We have not verified yet if all of these are in our library. Some of this is from our old researcher pages and needs updating....ALSO, YOU WILL FIND INFORMATION ON SPECIFIC RESEARCHERS, E-MAILS ECT.

Atlantis Submarine's Cancun Mexico Project Research. . The reef in Cancun is being studied by two marine biologists and preliminary results are available. Contact M.Sc. Roberto De la Torre Alegria, Ecological Advisor for Atlantis Submarine, Cancun. Species diversity reports were completed and several video monitorings have documented the fantastic success of the transformation of Reef Balls into a living coral reef.

Dr. Richard Spieler of Nova Southeastern University has also built a control array near the Atlantis site for his study "A Preliminary Study of Fish Recruitment To "Reef Ball" Artificial Reefs in Shallow and Deep Water"

NOVA Southeastern University. Since the fall of 1994, Nova Southeastern University in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida has been conducting a study about Reef Balls and has deployed several arrays for testing fish recruitment to shallow and deep water reefs in Ft. Lauderdale. The study is entitled, "A Preliminary Study of Fish Recruitment To "Reef Ball" Artificial Reefs in Shallow and Deep Water", Dr. Richard Spieler is a partner in the the research conducted by Dr. Robin Sherman.

Also At Nova Southeastern, Dr. Joshua S. Feingold. Dr. Feingold is a visiting professor at Nova Southeastern University. His research is focused upon the ecology of coral reefs and coral communities. His field experience has been in Aruba, Bahamas, Florida Keys (Caribbean) and the Galapagos Islands and Panama (Eastern Pacific). He is supervising a graduate student, Susan Teel, who will be investigating the differences in coral recruitment and cover between natural and artificial substrates.

South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Stability and Video Transect Study is being conducted by Mel Bell of the DNR.

Port Canaveral NAUI Project. FIT, under direction from Prof. Lee Harris, P.E. is continuing a monitoring program. Prof. Lee Harris, P.E. is also conducting a stability analysis and wave tank testing for RBDG. Dr. Harris has also written papers relating to Reef Balls used as Submerged Breakwaters.

The Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program in conjunction with Mote Aquarium has conducted research on seawall and inshore applications for artificial reefs and has available a paper entitled "Sarasota Bay Artificial Habitat Initiative" in which Reef Balls are being used. A grant for $5,000 has been given to the Reef Ball Foundation to work with students from New College to study the factors which influence ideal site selection for using Reef Balls at the base of channel markers. The study is due to be completed by the fall of 2000.

Prof. Lee Harris (Homepage) at Florida Institue of Technology presented "Engineering Design of Artificial Reefs," by Lee E. Harris, Proceedings of the Ocean's 95 Conference in San Diego, CA, November 1995. Reef Ball artificial reefs were reviewed in this paper.

Dr. Bill Lindberg, at the University of Florida is conducting several artificial reef research projects. His research is particularly useful to understand deployment pattern effects on fish populations and composition.

Dr. Steven Bortone, at the University of West Florida is conducting several artificial reef research projects and has applied for grants using Reef Balls.

Bortone,-S.A.; Shipp,-R.L.; Davis,-W.P.; Nester,-R.D. Artificial reef development along Guatemala's Atlantic coast. BULL.-MAR.-SCI. 1989. vol. 44, no. 2, p. 1065.

Bortone,-S.A.; Shipp,-R.L.; Davis,-W.P.; Nester,-R.D. Artificial reef development along the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. NORTHEAST-GULF-SCI. 1988. vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 45-48.

Dr. Bill Alevozon, at the University of California is conducting several artificial reef research projects.

Gorham,-J.C.; Alevizon,-W.S. Habitat complexity and the abundance of juvenile fishes residing on small scale artificial reefs. BULL.-MAR.-SCI. 1989. vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 662-665.

Dr. Alasdair Edwards, at the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Centre For Tropical Coastal Management has conducted research on several artificial reef designs.

Dr Michael P. Crosby at NOAA's Coastal and Restoration Management , is in charge of the Global Effort To Save Coral Reefs.

Dr. Alina Szmant at the University of Miami is conducting artificial reef research projects.

Dr. Marjorie Reaka-Kudla at the University of Maryland at College Park is doing studies on concerning animals that bore into coral. Also works on erosion of coral reefs and on stress related problems of reefs.

Dr. Yehuda Benayahu- Tel Aviv Univ. Israel, currently on sabbatical at the Univ. of Maryland, College Park (Soft corals and artificial coral reefs)

Dr. Denis Goulet-Buffalo, NY (reproduction and settlement of fish)

Nadav Shashar, Nadav Shashar, Ph.D. , Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, Tel (508) 289 7680, Fax (508) 289 7900 (Benthic marine ecologist)

Dr. James Porter is doing studies on coral reefs at the University of Georgia..

Dr. Heyward Mathews does work with artificial reefs at St. Petersburg Junior College. (Resume)

Dr. M. L. (Jake) Patton - Research on artificial reefs for giant kelp and fisheries enhancement. Conducted studies on artificial reef in California. Main thrust of the studies is cost-efficiency. Results indicate that with careful siting and design studies, cost may often be decreased by up to an order of magnitude without harming fishery enhancement.

Scott,-P.J.B.; Risk,-M.J.; Carriquiry,-J.D. El Nino, bioerosion and the survival of East Pacific reefs

PROCEEDINGS-OF-THE-SIXTH-INTERNATIONAL-CORAL-REEF- SYMPOSIUM,-TOWNSVILLE,-AUSTRALIA,-8th-12th-AUGUST-1988.- VOLUME-2:-CONTRIBUTED-PAPERS-MINI-SYMPOSIUM-1-TO-10-14. Choat,-J.H.;Barnes,-D.;Borowitzka,-M.A.;Coll,-J.C.;Davies,-P.J.;Flood,-P.;et-al.-eds.. 1988. pp. 517- 520.

Mote Marine Research Labs an independent, non-profit, marine and estuarine research and education facility.

Abstract: 8th International Coral Reef Symposium Coral Culture for Science and ReefManagement 8th International Coral Reef Symposium 24-29 June, 1996 Panama City, Panama. Organizers of the Coral Culture for Science and Reef Management symposium are seeking statements of interests and proposed presentation titles. The symposium will occur during the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS) and conform to its format. Talks will be 20 minutes in length including a question period. The symposium will last 1/2 day or a full day if interest warrants.

Abstract: Wave-Forced Porewater Mixing and Nutrient Flux in a Coral Reef Framework. Haberstroh, P.R. 1994 University of Hawaii at Manoa, 249 pp. Convective water flow, rather than molecular diffusion, is thought to dominate the exchange of dissolved material between interstitial water of coral reefs and the overlying water. Surface waves passing over coral reef flats should induce an oscillatory motion of framework interstitial waters and, in the presence of a downward increase in porewater nutrient concentrations, may enhance through dispersion the flux of interstitial nutrients to the overlying waters and marine organisms at the reef surface.

Abstract: Ogden, J. C. Ogden,-J.C. The influence of adjacent systems on the structure and function of coral reefs.

Abstract: Guzman, H. M. Guzman,-H.M. Restoration of coral reefs in Pacific Costa Rica. CONSERV.-BIOL. 1991. vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 189-195. Loss and degradation of coral reef habitats are increasing in the eastern Pacific ...

Abstract: Meier, O. W. Meier,-O.W.; Porter,-J.W. Detecting change in coral reef communities: A comparison of survey methods. AM.-ZOOL. 1991 vol. 31, no. 5, p. 47A. The accurate survey of coral reef communities poses unique ...

Dr. Marin R. Speight at the University of Oxford has two graduate students doing studies on artificial reefs. Dr. Speight is also an avid diver and is interested in Artificial Reefs.

Dr. Andrew Fooggo at the University of Oxford is moving to the University of Plymouth in Feb. '96 and hopes to find funding to conduct research on how various materials affect the fouling comminites on artificial reefs.

Coral Reef Meeting, UK 1995

Gorham,-J.C.; Alevizon,-W.S. Habitat complexity and the abundance of juvenile fishes residing on small scale artificial reefs. BULL.-MAR.-SCI. 1989. vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 662-665. Unraveled lengths of 0.5-in diameter polypropylene rope were evaluated as a means of increasing the abundance of juvenile fishes on man-made reefs.

Dr David Booth Summary: Booth, D.J. and D.M. Brosnan (1995) The Role of recruitment dynamics in rocky shore and coral reef fish communities. Ecology 76: 91-106 Booth, D.J. and G.A. Beretta (1994) Seasonal recruitment, habitat associations, and survival ofpomacentrid reef fish in the US Virgin Islands.

Wasilun. Study on artificial coral reef in Pari Island, Thousand Islands, Indonesia. REPORT-OF-THE-WORKSHOP-ON-ARTIFICIAL-REEFS-DEVELOPMENT
-AND-MANAGEMENT.-PENANG,-MALAYSIA,-13-18-SEPTEMBER-1988. 1988. pp. 97-101.

Hadisubroto,-I. A trial improvement on coral reef in Jepara. REPORT-OF-THE-WORKSHOP-ON-ARTIFICIAL-REEFS-DEVELOPMENT- AND-MANAGEMENT.-PENANG,-MALAYSIA,-13-18-SEPTEMBER-1988. pp. 93-96.

Clarke,-R.D. Effects of microhabitat and metabolic rate on food intake, growth and fecundity of two competing coral reef fishes. CORAL-REEFS. 1992. vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 199-205.

UMass Dartmouth faculty are continuing to work with area legislators and scientists in pushing for future construction of an artificial reef, seen as a way to replenish stock of some species of fish. Political Science Prof. Rob Wilder is coordinating the university's participation in the project, through the Center for Policy Analysis. The research is being overseen by highly-regarded scientists Dr. Alan Kuzirian of the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, and Dr. Philip Lobel of Boston University's Marine Program.

Evaluation of Tawas Artificial Reef As Fish Spawning Habitiat Neal R. Foster or Gregory W. Kennedy National Biological Service, Great Lakes Science Center (NBS-GLSC), 1451 Green Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA Tel.: (313) 994-3331, ext. 264 (NRF) or ext. 215 (GWK); FAX: (313) 994-8780; E-mail: (cc-mail) R8 NFRC.GL or

Dr. Bruce Saul; Augusta College Biology Dept; 2500 Walton Way; Augusta, GA 30904-2200; voice 706-7371539; freshwater reefs in Clarks Hill/Thurmond Lake, GA

Dr. Heyward Mathews
109 Maplewood Ave.
Clearwater, FL 34625

B.S. Zoology, University of Georgia 1963 M.S. Oceanography, Florida State University 1966 Ed.D. Education Nova University 1975

Professional Experience:
1966 Pollution Biologist, Orange County Water Conservation Dept.. 1966-67 Fishery Biologist, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1967-present Professor of Oceanography, S.P.J.C.,Clearwater Campus

Have prepared over 75 environmental impact reports for upland, aquatic, and marine construction and development projects in Florida. Was the originator of the Pinellas County Artificial Reef Program. Served as a consultant to numerous artificial reef projects around the state as part of a grant from Florida Sea Grant. As the head of the Artificial Reef Resource Team traveled around the state from 1975 to 1988 providing assistance to local and municipal artificial reef building projects. Published 15 scientific papers, mostly on artificial reef site selection and evaluation. Served on numerous local environmental committees and have been called as an expert witness at Florida DNR administrative hearings and before the U.S. House Fisheries Committee in Washington D.C. Served on the committee to draft federal guidelines on an artificial reef plan for the U.S. Congress Served on one Masters Committee and one Doctoral Committee at the University of South Florida. Have done large amount of consulting on channel dredging and marina construction, including the following: Dr. Mathews has been a scuba diver for 40 years and a scuba instructor for 20 years and has certified over 1,000 divers in Pinellas County. Presently teaching oceanography and scuba at St. Petersburg Junior College Dr. Mathews has a U.S. Coast Guard Captains License (6 passengers for hire) and has been running dive charters for 20 years.

Dr. Mathews is currently involved in a 2 year study for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to determine the effectiveness of a number of surplus M 60 tanks that were used around the country as artificial reefs back in 1996-97, that project in conjunction with Dr. Dan Sheehy of Aquabio. Dr. Mathews is also working as a consultant with the Pinellas County Artificial Reef Project on the design and evaluation of the new North County Artificial Reef off Dunedin.

List of Publications:
1. Primary Production Measurements on an Artificial Reef. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Florida State University, 1966.
2. Benefit-Cost Study of Pinellas County Artificial Reefs. Co- author with Eila Hanni. Florida Sea Grant Technical Paper #1. May 2,1977.
3. Comparative Efficacy of Artificial and Natural Gulf of Mexico Reefs as Fish Attractors. Co-author with Gregory B. Smith & Dannie A. Hensley. Florida Marine Research Publications #35 June 1979.
4. Artificial Reef Site Selection and Evaluation. Florida Cooperative Extension Service (Sea Grant) #SGEB-4. Oct. 1984.
5. Artificial Fishing Reefs- Materials and Construction. Florida Cooperative Extension Marine Advisory Bulletin # MAP-29. Sept 1983.
6. Reefs From Rigs: The Nuts and Bolts of Conversion. Proceedings, Fifth Annual Gulf of Mexico Information Transfer Meeting. 1984. Dept. of Interior-Minerals Management Service.
7. Artificial Reefs: Permit Application Guidelines. Florida Cooperative Extension Service (Sea Grant) #SGEB-4. Oct. 1984.
8. Artificial Reefs, Marine and Freshwater Applications. Edited by Frank M. D'Itri. Chapter 4 Physical and Geological Aspects of Artificial Reef Site Selection. 198
9. Rigs-to-Reefs: Obsolete Oil Platforms Find New Life as Artificial Reefs. Skin Diver, Nov. 1985 Vol 34 # 11.
10. Artificial Reef Research Diver's Handbook, Edited by Joseph G. Halusky. Chapter 5 Site Selection and Evaluation by Divers. 1991

Dr Mark Baine Orkney Islands Campus, Heriot-Watt University, Scotland

PhD completed in 1998 on "An analysis of the North Sea rigs-to-reefs debate, centring on the UK continental shelf"

Has been involved with fish distribution studies around offshore platforms in the North Sea.

Currently undertaking a review of individual reef performance (from publications) in terms of meeting objectives, taking into account management and design features.


Baine M and Heaps L 1993. An introduction to artificial reef technology. In: 'Artificial Reefs and Restocking', proceedings of a conference held on September 12, 1992, Stromness, Orkney Islands, Scotland, p1-6.

Baine M (editor) 1993. Artificial Reefs and Restocking, proceedings of a conference held on September 12, 1992, Stromness, Orkney Islands, Scotland, 66p.

Side J, Baine M and Hayes K 1993. Current controls for the abandonment and disposal of offshore installations at sea. Marine Policy, September 1993, p354 - 362.

Kjeilen G, Aabel, J P, Hoyvangli V, Baine M, Picken G and Heaps, L 1995. Odin - an artificial reef study. Research report prepared for Esso Norge AS No. RF-138/94, 97pp.

Baine M 1995. Rigs to reefs in the North Sea. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecological Systems Enhancement Technology for Aquatic Environments, Tokyo, October 1995, Volume 2, p 507-512.

Picken G, Baine M, Heaps L and Side J 1999. Rigs to reefs in the North Sea. In: Artificial Reefs, ed. A Jensen, K Collins and A Lockwood, (accepted for publication).

Baine M 1997. Rigs to reefs, the North Sea perspective. In: "The responses of marine organisms to their environment", proceedings of the 30th European Marine Biology Symposium (edited by L.E. Hawkins and S. Hutchinson, with A.C. Jensen, A. Williams and M. Sheader, University of Southampton, p 275-280. ISBN 0-904175-31-61.

This is a summary of ECOSET '95-The International Artificial Reef Meeting in Japan as reported by Stephen A. Bortone, Insititue for Coastal and Estuarine Research, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32514. This paper was inputed by scanner, please do not attribute the occasional scanning error to that of the author. (usually left out periods or perhaps a Z rather than an S)

Since the readership is probably more interested in the papers pertaining strictly to artificial reefs, below are the papers as listed in the Proceedings under Artificial Reefs:

The role of a FAD in the variation of fish assemblages on the Loano artificial reef (Ligurian sea NW-Mediterranean) by M Relini, G Torchia, G Relini

Traditional FADs as substrates for food organisms by 5. Ibrahim, M A. Ambak, M Z Samsudin

Fish abundance and diversity in response to variable dispersion of artificial reef units. by W Seaman, W J Lindberg, TT. K. Frazerp K. M Portier

Distribution of fish assem bling around 54 large-scaled artificial reef clusters settled in an area by K. Uchida, H Maeda, K Tabuchi A Hamano K. Kubota

Life expectancy and effectiveness of fish aggregation devices in Taiwan by J C Lin, W CT. Su

The development of the large artificial floating reef buoyT. by K. Sekita, H Ohkubo, T Torii, T UenoT.

Coal ash tests in Loano artificial reef by G Relini, MT. Relini, GT. Torchia, F Tixi, C Nigri

Stabilized harbour muds for artificial reef blocks, by G, Relini, Trentalance, M Relini, G Torchia, F Tixi.

Biological development of a stabilized coal ash artificial reef Poole Bayp UK by K Collins, A Jensenp J Mallinson.

Trends in the sessile epibiotic biomass of an artificial reef by A M Hatcter

The development of an experimental artificial reef in Hong Kong: objectives and initial results by A, W Y Leung, K F Leung K Y Lam, B Morton

Application of high-volume fly ash concrete to marine structures by T Suzuki.

Comparison of natural reef and artificial reef fish assemblages in Algarve waters (South Portugal). by M N Santos, C C Monteiro, K Erzini

Food habits and forage limits of artificial reef fishes in the Northern Gulf of Mexico by S A. Bortone, B. D Nelson.

Fish assemblage analysis by means of a visual census survey on an artificial reef and on natural areas in the Gulf of Castellammare (NW Sicily) by G D'Anna, F. Badalamentip R Lipari, A Cuttitta, C Pipitone

The effect of artificial reef and seaweed bed on survival of prey fish by H Kakimoto, M. Ohgai, K Tsumura, M Noda

Invertebrate biomass on an artificial reef in the southern-Tyrrhenian sea by M L Tumbiolo, F Badalamenti, G D'Anna, B Patti

Three years study of benthic communities on an artificial reef in Canary Islands by R Herrera, T Moreno,A Casanas, E Soler p H Larsen, R Haroun

Epibenthic communities at three temperate reef sites: Measures of species association, abundance and substrate preference by S Chang, J B, Pearce.

Forming of species composition of the ichthioplankton in zone of Artificial reefs by D V. Svetlane

Evaluation of a novel material for artificial reef construction by D S Gilliam, K Banks, R E Spieler

Preliminary test of man-made spawning beds for fishes dwelling in a dam reservoir by S lshikawa, M lwamizu.

Influence of habitat enhancement on yield and biomass renewal of seaweeds ii eutrophic coastal water of the Black sea by V P Parchevsky, M A Rabinovich.

A kelp artificial reef adjacent to a nuclear generating station by K F Zabloudilp R S Grove, L E Deysher

The growth and survival of Sargassum patens on andesite and granite substrata used on the formation of seaweed beds by M Ohgai, N Murase, H Kakimoto, M Noda

The relationship between algal vegetation found on concrete blocks and the month when those substrata were installed in the sea, by M Noda, M Ohgai, H Kakimoto, A Yamashita

Study on a new method for kelp foundation creation by H Hasegawa, Y Kawasaki, T Terawaki

Technology for creating an artificial seaweed community using ferrous sulfate by K Hotta, T Suzuki, M. Ohno.

Artisanal artificial reefs in Kerala, 5. India by K Collins, A Jensen, P Robert, J B Rajan

Wooden artificial reef by K Yabe

Acadja-enclos: A new improved aquaculture system for a sustainable development in developing world by J B L F. Avit, 5 Hemp A M Kouassi

Impact of artificial fish habitats on artisanal fishing communities in Kerala, India by T D'Cruz, V Vivekanadan

Artificial reefs in Canary Islands: An overview of their present situation by R. Haroun, R Herrera

Artificial fish habitats in traditional fisheries of south-west coast of India. by 5. Lazarus.

Lake Havasu fisheries improvement program. by L A Forbis D L. LaMorte

Artificial reef research in the European union: a review. by A. Jensenp K Collins

Artificial reefs and mariculture: The Italian experiences. by G Bombace, G Fabi, L Fiorentini.

Artificial reefs in the Philippines: Issues on its role as an intervention measure for resource enhancement relative to coastal resource management by V. D Albaladejo, C V Botones

Fishpen development in Laguna de Bay A boon or bane to the social, economic and environmental concerns of the area by M N Delmendo

Artificial reef research in Puerto Rico by J M Berrios, J H. Timber

Sustainable development of aquaculture in Bangladesh by the year 2010 and beyond by A K M NuruZZaman

A noted difference in the overall presentations between this conference and previous such international ventures was the increasing degree of sophistication in the data analyses Moreover there has been a noted shift toward using artificial reefs in experimental designs to address specific questions regarding the function of artificial reefs The Europeans were especially obvious in this regard with their rigorous testing of materials such as coal ash and disposal muds The question of tires as artificial reefs and the possibility of their causing pollution was a topic of concern, as in the past It was offered that some of the potential pollution problem may be attenuated by embedding the tires in concrete to avoid contact of the tire with the environment Controversy still seems to pervade the idea of the trophic relationships among the organisms on reefs Several studies indicated that organisms attached to the reefs were major sources of energy for preferred-target fishes while other studies indicated that reefs served as a home base from which foraging activities took place The answer may depend upon the species that are targeted, as well as the biotic province in which the reef is deployed There was avid interest and reports of artificial reefs becoming an integral part of mariculture activities Along with this trend were several presentations that used artificial reefs to aid in the formation of viable grass kelp, and algae communities.

The meeting was clearly a success not just because of the number and quality of papers presented, but in the fact that investigators of artificial reef problems were afforded an opportunity to share their professional and personal experiences. Plans were tentatively made for the next international artificial reef conference to be held some three or four years hence, probably in Europe and more specifically in Italy. If the trends in artificial research continue the next meeting will likely have a higher degree of sophistication and continue to indicate even broader applications of artificial reef technology. Sayonara for now and Buon Giorno next time!

Shonagh Withey 2, Fair View, Menai Bridge, Anglesey, Gwynedd, N. Wales, LL59 5ER Tel: 012483 716401 Fax: 01869 340650 e-mail:

Shonagh is graduate student reading MSc Marine Environmental Protection at the University of North Wales, Bangor. She has spent some time over the last 4 years working as a research assistant and scientific officer throughout the Caribbean, primarily based in Barbados and Belize.

Shonagh is interested in a range of aspects concerning artificial reefs, in particular Reef Balls. She is due to start a 4 month research project in June 1996 and hope to focus it on artificial reefs. She also has some ideas on which to base this project, but is also interested in working with someone who has already established a programme and would like an assistant for the summer.

In addition to his work in the summer, She is currently preparing an Environmental Imapct Statement of placing an series of 6' Reef Balls on Constable Bank, here in North Wales.

She would be very interested in hearing from anyone that may have a research opportunity opening and would like to discuss it further, or if anyone has conducted an EIS for placing a Reef Ball in other locations.

Dr. Altan Lok.

He has completed his Ph.D. about 1,5 years ago and his research was about artificial reefs. It was the FIRST such research in Turkey. Now he is looking for a post doc position in US.

Dr. Altan LOK
Ege Universitesi
Su Urunleri Fakultesi
Iskele/ Urla
Izmir - Turkey

  • Conference Chair, Prof. Giulio Relini, SIBM and University of Genoa, Italy (Tel. and Fax: +39 010 2477537; E-mail:
  • Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Antony Jensen, EARRN Co-ordinator, University of Southampton, U.K. (Tel. +44 1703 593428, Fax: +44 1703 596642, E-mail:
  • Prof. Giovanni Bombace, President of ISMARE (National Institute for Marine Sciences Coordination, Italian Research Council), Italy (Tel. +39 071 207881, Fax: +39 071 55313, E-mail:
  • Prof. Stefano Cataudella, Chairman of Aquaculture Committee of FAO-GFCM, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Italy (Tel. +39 06 72595954, Fax: +39 06 2026189, E-mail:
  • Dr. Ken Collins, University of Southampton, U.K. (Tel. +44 1703 596010, Fax: +44 1703 596642, E-mail:
  • Prof. François Doumenge, Director of Oceanographic Institute in Monaco, ICSEM General Secretary (Tel. +377 93153600, Fax: +377 93505297)
  • Mrs. Cristina Siccardi & Paola Mattioni, Sanremo Congressi Turismo, Corso Garibaldi, 98 - 18038 Sanremo (IM), Italy (Tel.+39 0184 503142, Fax: +39 0184 531133, E-mail:
  • Dr. Giuseppe Notarbartolo Di Sciara, President of ICRAM, Rome. (Tel. +33 06 61570412, fax +33 06 61550581. Email:
  • Prof. William Seaman, Florida Sea Grant Program, University of Florida, USA (Tel. +1 352 392 5870 ext 228, Fax: + 1 352 392 5113, E-mail:
  • Dr. Josianne Stottrup, ICES Representative, Danish Institute for Fisheries and Marine Research, Denmark (Tel. +45 98 94 45 00, Fax: +45 33963200, E-mail:
  • Prof. Ehud Spanier, Centre for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Israel (Tel. +972 4 8240782, Fax: +972 4 824 0493, E-mail:
  • Rob Leewis, RIVM, Holland (Tel. +31 302 742695, Fax: + 31 302744433, E-mail:
  • Dr. Stephen A. Bortone, Director of Environmental Science,The Conservancy of Southwest Florida, 1450 Merrihue Drive, Naples, Florida 34102, USA. (Tel.: 941-403-4232, Fax: , E-mail941-262-5872:
  • Dr. Chokei Itosu, Department of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo University, Japan (Tel. +81 3 5463 0472, Fax: +81 3 5463 0517, E-mail:
  • Dr. Charles A. Wilson, Coastal Fisheries Institute, Louisiana State University, USA (Tel. 904 392 5870, E-mail:
  • Mr. Robert Grove, Southern California Edison, USA (Tel. 626 302 9735, Fax 626 302 9730, E-mail:
  • Dr Carlos Costa Monteiro, IPIMAR - CRIPS, Avendida 5 de Outubro, Olhao, Portugal (Tel +351 8970 05 00, Fax +352 89 70 05 35, E-mail:
  • Prof Isabel Moreno, Marine Biology, Biology Department, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07071, Palma, Mallorca, Spain (Tel +34 971173154, Fax +34 971173184, E-mail:



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